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    Scientists continue to debate about the location of the Garden of Eden

    There are several versions of the location of Adam and Eve's resting place

    The search for the Garden of Eden, a mythical paradise mentioned in religious texts, leads archaeologists through a labyrinth of historical clues and finds. The Book of Genesis contains ambiguous details describing Eden as a place fed by rivers. Recent excavations in the Persian Gulf region provide interesting information.

    Jan Brueghel the Younger: Creation of Adam in the Paradise

    The remains of ancient settlements dating back to the Ubaid period, approximately 7,500 years ago, indicate that in this region civilization once flourished. Advanced technology, trade networks spanning vast territories, and evidence of sophisticated shipbuilding indicate that the society was much more advanced than previously thought.

    Sumerian legends are closely intertwined with the narrative of Eden, especially in the stories of the mythical land of Dilmun, associated with eternal life and abundance. This legendary paradise, believed to be located in and around part of modern-day Bahrain, has striking parallels with the Eden described in biblical texts.

    The location of the garden is described in Genesis 2:10-14: “ And a river came out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it was divided into four parts.”

    The key point is that the Garden of Eden was located at the confluence of four rivers. Today, geographers also know two of these rivers: the Tigris and Euphrates, which originate in Turkey, flow through Syria and Iraq and empty into the Persian Gulf.

    However, it is unclear what the names Pichon and Gihon refer to. Over the centuries, some theologians have suggested that they may refer to the Ganges in India and the Nile in Egypt, although others have noted that it may refer to vast parts of the Earth.

    The 16th-century theologian John Calvin, known for his role in the Protestant Reformation, believed: “Many people think that Pichon and Gihon — these are the Ganges and the Nile; however, the error of these people is completely belied by the remoteness of these rivers. There is no shortage of people who even cross the Danube; as if indeed the dwelling of one man extended from the most remote part of Asia to the tip of Europe.”

    The Mesopotamian marshes, with their rich archaeological heritage dating back to the period of early urbanization, are a compelling candidate for the location of Eden. Despite centuries of environmental degradation and human intervention, efforts to restore these wetlands offer hope for the return of a lost paradise.

    Across cultures and civilizations, the story of Eden — a symbol of humanity's desire for an idyllic past. Although the exact location remains a matter of debate and speculation, the search for Eden continues to captivate minds and inspire exploration of our shared history.

    From a scientific perspective, one must look to Africa. The Cradle of Humankind can be found in the southern part of the continent, about 50 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. The largest number of remains of human ancestors in the world is concentrated here. Among the thousands of fossils found here, researchers discovered the remains of Australopithecus, an early ape-like species of humans that is about 3.4-3.7 million years old.

    Modern Homo sapiens appeared only 200-300 thousand years ago somewhere in the area of ​​modern Ethiopia.

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